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变频器故障预防

典型故障

故障现(xian)象:变(bian)频器(qi)在加速、减速或(huo)正常运行(xing)时出现(xian)过电流(liu)跳闸。

首先应区(qu)分是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)由(you)于负(fu)载(zai)原(yuan)因(yin),还是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)原(yuan)因(yin)引(yin)(yin)起(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)。如果(guo)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang),可(ke)通过(guo)历史(shi)记录(lu)查询在跳闸时的(de)(de)电(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu),超过(guo)了变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)额(e)定(ding)电(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)或(huo)(huo)电(dian)子(zi)(zi)热继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)设(she)定(ding)值,而三相(xiang)电(dian)压和(he)电(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)平衡的(de)(de),则(ze)应考虑是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)否有过(guo)载(zai)或(huo)(huo)突变(bian)(bian),如电(dian)机堵转等(deng)。在负(fu)载(zai)惯性(xing)较大(da)时,可(ke)适当延长加速(su)时间,此过(guo)程对(dui)变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)本身(shen)并无损坏。若跳闸时的(de)(de)电(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu),在变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)额(e)定(ding)电(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)或(huo)(huo)在电(dian)子(zi)(zi)热继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)设(she)定(ding)范围内(nei),可(ke)判(pan)断(duan)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)IPM模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)或(huo)(huo)相(xiang)关部分发生(sheng)故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)。首先可(ke)以通过(guo)测量变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)主回路(lu)输(shu)出端(duan)子(zi)(zi)U、V、W, 分别与直流(liu)(liu)(liu)侧的(de)(de)P、N端(duan)子(zi)(zi)之间的(de)(de)正(zheng)反向电(dian)阻,来判(pan)断(duan)IPM模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)否损坏。如模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)未损坏,则(ze)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)驱动(dong)电(dian)路(lu)出了故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)。如果(guo)减速(su)时IPM模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)过(guo)流(liu)(liu)(liu)或(huo)(huo)变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)对(dui)地短(duan)路(lu)跳闸,一般是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)逆变(bian)(bian)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)上(shang)半桥(qiao)的(de)(de)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)或(huo)(huo)其驱动(dong)电(dian)路(lu)故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang);而加速(su)时IPM模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)过(guo)流(liu)(liu)(liu),则(ze)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)下半桥(qiao)的(de)(de)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)或(huo)(huo)其驱动(dong)电(dian)路(lu)部分故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang),发生(sheng)这些故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)的(de)(de)原(yuan)因(yin),多是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)由(you)于外(wai)部灰尘(chen)进入变(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)(pin)器(qi)(qi)内(nei)部或(huo)(huo)环境潮(chao)湿引(yin)(yin)起(qi)(qi)。


控制回路

控制回(hui)路(lu)(lu)影响变频器寿(shou)命的(de)(de)(de)是电(dian)源部分,是平滑电(dian)容器和IPM电(dian)路(lu)(lu)板中的(de)(de)(de)缓冲电(dian)容器,其原理与前述相同,但这里的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)容器中通过的(de)(de)(de)脉动电(dian)流,是基本不受主回(hui)路(lu)(lu)负载影响的(de)(de)(de)定值,故其寿(shou)命主要由(you)温度和通电(dian)时间(jian)决定。由(you)于电(dian)容器都焊接(jie)在电(dian)路(lu)(lu)板上,通过测量静电(dian)容量来判断(duan)劣化情(qing)况比较困难,一般根据电(dian)容器环境温度以及使(shi)用时间(jian),来推算是否接(jie)近其使(shi)用寿(shou)命。

电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)板(ban)给(ji)控制回路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)、IPM驱(qu)动电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)和表面操作(zuo)显示(shi)板(ban)以及风(feng)扇(shan)(shan)等(deng)提(ti)供电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan),这(zhei)些电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)一(yi)般都(dou)是(shi)从主电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)输出的(de)直流电(dian)(dian)压,通过(guo)(guo)开关电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)再分(fen)别整流而(er)得到的(de)。因此,某一(yi)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)短(duan)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu),除了本路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)的(de)整流电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)受损(sun)外,还(hai)可能影(ying)响其(qi)(qi)他部分(fen)的(de)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan),如由于误操作(zuo)而(er)使控制电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)与公共接地短(duan)接,致使电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)板(ban)上开关电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)部分(fen)损(sun)坏,风(feng)扇(shan)(shan)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)的(de)短(duan)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)导致其(qi)(qi)他电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)断电(dian)(dian)等(deng)。一(yi)般通过(guo)(guo)观察电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)(lu)板(ban)就比较容易发现。

逻辑控制(zhi)电路(lu)板是变(bian)频器的核(he)心,它(ta)集中(zhong)了(le)CPU、MPU、RAM、EEPROM等大规模集成电路(lu),具(ju)有很(hen)高的可(ke)靠性,本身出现(xian)故(gu)障(zhang)的概率很(hen)小(xiao),但有时(shi)(shi)会因开机(ji)而(er)使全部控制(zhi)端子同(tong)时(shi)(shi)闭合,导致变(bian)频器出现(xian)EEPROM故(gu)障(zhang),这(zhei)只要对EEPROM重新复(fu)位就(jiu)可(ke)以了(le)。

IPM电(dian)路(lu)板(ban)包含驱动和缓冲电(dian)路(lu),以及过电(dian)压(ya)、缺相(xiang)等保护(hu)电(dian)路(lu)。从逻辑(ji)控制板(ban)来(lai)的(de)PWM信(xin)(xin)号,通(tong)过光(guang)(guang)耦合将电(dian)压(ya)驱动信(xin)(xin)号输(shu)入IPM模(mo)块,因而在检测(ce)模(mo)快(kuai)的(de)同时(shi),还应测(ce)量IPM模(mo)块上的(de)光(guang)(guang)耦。


冷却系统

冷却(que)系统主要包括散热(re)片和冷却(que)风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)。其(qi)中冷却(que)风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)寿(shou)命较短,临近使用寿(shou)命时(shi),风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)产(chan)生震动,噪声(sheng)增大最后停(ting)转(zhuan),变频器出现IPM过(guo)热(re)跳闸。冷却(que)风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)的寿(shou)命受陷于轴承,大约为(wei)10000~35000 h。当变频器连续运(yun)转(zhuan)时(shi),需要2~3年更换(huan)一(yi)次风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)或轴承。为(wei)了延长(zhang)风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)的寿(shou)命,一(yi)些产(chan)品的风(feng)(feng)(feng)扇(shan)(shan)只(zhi)在(zai)变频器运(yun)转(zhuan)时(shi)而不是(shi)电源开(kai)启时(shi)运(yun)行。


电磁感应

如(ru)果变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)周围存在干扰(rao)源,它(ta)们(men)将通过(guo)(guo)(guo)辐射或(huo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源线(xian)(xian)侵入(ru)变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)的(de)内部(bu),引起控(kong)制(zhi)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(lu)误动作,造(zao)成(cheng)工作不正常或(huo)停机(ji),严(yan)重时(shi)(shi)甚至损坏变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)。减少噪声(sheng)干扰(rao)的(de)具体方法有:变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)周围所(suo)有继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、接(jie)触器(qi)的(de)控(kong)制(zhi)线(xian)(xian)圈(quan)上(shang),加(jia)装(zhuang)(zhuang)防止冲击电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压的(de)吸(xi)收装(zhuang)(zhuang)置,如(ru)RC浪涌吸(xi)收器(qi),其(qi)(qi)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)不能超(chao)过(guo)(guo)(guo)20 cm;尽量(liang)缩短(duan)控(kong)制(zhi)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(lu)的(de)配(pei)线(xian)(xian)距(ju)离,并使其(qi)(qi)与(yu)主(zhu)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(lu)分离;变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)控(kong)制(zhi)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(lu)配(pei)线(xian)(xian)绞合节距(ju)离应(ying)在15 mm以(yi)(yi)上(shang),与(yu)主(zhu)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(lu)保持10 cm以(yi)(yi)上(shang)的(de)间距(ju);变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)距(ju)离电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机(ji)很远时(shi)(shi)(超(chao)过(guo)(guo)(guo)100 m),这时(shi)(shi)一方面可加(jia)大(da)导线(xian)(xian)截面面积,保证线(xian)(xian)路(lu)(lu)压降(jiang)在2%以(yi)(yi)内,同时(shi)(shi)应(ying)加(jia)装(zhuang)(zhuang)变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)输(shu)出电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)抗器(qi),用来补偿因长距(ju)离导线(xian)(xian)产生的(de)分布电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容的(de)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流。变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)接(jie)地(di)端子应(ying)按规定进行(xing)接(jie)地(di),必须(xu)在专用接(jie)地(di)点可靠(kao)接(jie)地(di),不能同电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)焊、动力接(jie)地(di)混用;变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)输(shu)入(ru)端安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)无线(xian)(xian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)噪声(sheng)滤波器(qi),减少输(shu)入(ru)高次(ci)谐波,从而可降(jiang)低从电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源线(xian)(xian)到电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子设备的(de)噪声(sheng)影(ying)响;同时(shi)(shi)在变(bian)(bian)(bian)频(pin)(pin)器(qi)的(de)输(shu)出端也安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)无线(xian)(xian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)噪声(sheng)滤波器(qi),以(yi)(yi)降(jiang)低其(qi)(qi)输(shu)出端的(de)线(xian)(xian)路(lu)(lu)噪声(sheng)。


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